Level: Beginners (A1/A2)
Category: Adverbs in Polish
Adverbs in Polish Language - a full easy to understand guide! Table of contents
- What are adverbs
- How do you form adverbs in Polish
- Some exceptions to the rules!
- Some useful adverbs in Polish
- Comparing with adverbs
- Superlative of adverbs
- How to actually compare
- How to say something is 'more and more' (coraz)
- Further reading
What are adverbs
How do you form adverbs in Polish
Adverbs are generated by adding an ending (often -o or -e) to the end of the stem of an adjective
You can form an adverb from an adjective.
There are three main groups:
Adjective words ending in -i or -y: replace with -o.
For example Szybki (which is an adjective, it means 'fast/quick') changes to szybko (quickly)
Adjective words ending in -ry: replace with -rze
For example dobry (adj. good) » dobrze (adverb.)
Adjective words ending in -ny: replace with -nie
Adjectives ending in -ny are made into adverbs by changing it to -nie ending.
But not for jasny (clear/bright), which changes to jasno!
Some exceptions to the rules!
As well as the jasny (jasno) example above, there are a few other exceptions that are very common:
Zły (bad) changes to żle
Stary (old) changes to staro
Some useful adverbs in Polish
Comparing with adverbs
The comparative of an adverbs is normally formed by adding -ej or -iej to an adjective.
trudno (hard, adverb). Comparative: trudniej (harder). (superlative: najtrudniej - hardest
Superlative of adverbs
The superlative is normally formed by adding naj- to the start of the comparative.
How to actually compare
You use 'niz' to compare. For example "this xxxx is [comparative adverb] than [other item]". Other item is in Genitive
To stoł jest drożej niz [something] - this table is more expensive than [something]
The [something] will be in Genitive!
How to say something is 'more and more' (coraz)
Coraz is used to mean that something is happening more and more. (Actually, it can mean less and less too if the adverb being used is something like mniej (less))
After coraz use the adverb (as normal).
E.g. jesteś coraz szybko = you are faster and faster / you are getting faster and faster
To jest coraz mniej = this is less and less. (note that coraz doesn't actually mean 'more' but it is most things (like faster) are increasing. But when used with words like mniej then it can be less and less.
This page is a good guide.